WELCOME TO SCIENCE YEAR 4

Saturday, 15 December 2012

UNIT 2 LIFE PROCESS

LESSON 7: ANIMALS BREATHE

1. Animals need oxygen in the air to keep them alive.
2. Animals have special breathing structures to help them breathe.
3. These breathing structures are known as the breathing organs.
4. Different animals have different breathing organs.


Breathing structure
Animals
Lungs
Monkey, bird, whale, dolphin
Moist Skin
Frog, worm
Lung books
Crab
Trachea structure
Grasshopper, butterfly, cockroach
Gills
Fish, tadpole


5. Diagram below shows the breathing structure of different animals.




The frog breathe using moist skin

The fish breathe with gills

The crab breathe with lung books




UNIT 2 LIFE PROCESS

LESSON 6: ANIMAL EXCRETE AND DEFECATE

1. Animal give out carbon dioxide as one of their waste products.
2. Different animals have different organs to excrete carbon dioxide from their body.
3. Some animals excrete through their lungs and some use their skin and gills.
4. Table below shows the type of excretory organ of different animals.


Excretory Organs
Animals
Lungs
Cat, dog, cow, whale, bird
Gills
Fish, tadpoles, prawn
Skin
Worm, frog, insect


5. Most animals produce urine as their waste product.
6. These land animal also produce sweat.
7. Like humans, land and aquatic animals also defecate.
8. Animals will die if they do not excrete or defecate.

The dog excrete
 
The cow defecate




Monday, 3 December 2012

UNIT 6: THE EARTH AND THE UNIVERSE

LESSON 1: OUR SOLAR SYSTEM

1. The earth we live in is placed in the solar system.
2. The solar system has planets, natural satelites, meteors, comets and asteroids.
3. There are nine planets in the system:
4. The earth is the third planet from the sun. It is located between Venus and Mars.
5. All planets in the solar system move around the sun in a large oval shaped path.
6. The planets also spin by itself while moving around the sun.
7, Asteroids are large pieces of rocks that move around the sun. Comets consist of chunks of ice, dust and rock that move around the sun. When they get closer to the sun, they produce long glowing tails. Meteors are tiny rocks that probably come from the asteroids that have been broken off.
8. You can use the following acronymes to remember the order of the planets in our Solar System.
1. Mercury (My)
2. Venus (Very)
3. Earth (Excellent)
4. Mars (Mother)
5. Jupiter (Just)
6. Saturn (Served)
7. Uranus (Us)
8. Neptune (Nice)
9. Pluto (Puddings)

Lets Take A Closer Look At The Earth and the Universe from this video.


THE MOON
1. The moon is the natural satelite for the Earth.
2. A satelite is an object in space that moves around another object.
3. Therefore, the moon moves around the Earth.
4. The moon takes about 28 days to move around the Earth.
5. The moon does not give out light and heat.
6. The moon appears bright at night because it reflects the light from the Sun.
And one more thing for your information, in January 2005, an American scientist called Michael Brown discovered the tenth planet in the Solar System. The planet is called 2003 UB313 or Xena. It moves around the Sun. It is larger than Pluto.


Hope these notes can help you to learn in this lesson.

Wednesday, 14 November 2012

10 RECYCLE THINGS YOU CAN FOUND AT HOME AND SCHOOL

 Paper

While many homes and classrooms collect used paper products for commercial recycling, children can also practice hands-on paper recycling. They can learn to make book covers, scratch pads and art-quality paper from waste.

Clothing

Recycling clothing can be a transformational project. Children might help plan and make quilts from worn and outgrown clothing. At school, they can turn old clothes into tote bags, pillows or costumes.

Jars

Jars of all sizes are great for organizing spaces. Small children can bring baby food jars to school for use as paint jars. Parents and children can put a tool bench in order with recycled jars for nails, screws or other small items.

Plastic

Children can reuse clean plastic milk jugs to make planters for garden seeds. They can make vases or pencil holders from smaller water bottles.

Cardboard

Adults and children can recycle cardboard boxes of all sizes creatively. From simple makeovers, such as stretching rubber bands around a shoebox to make a guitar, to more complex projects, such as creating a foil-lined cardboard solar oven, the possibilities are myriad. Cut cardboard into small pieces to add it to a garden compost, or send it to a recycling facility to be remade into various paper products (see References 1).

Printer Cartridges

Recycling empty printer cartridges from home or school is easy, because many new ones come with return envelopes. Some companies that refill cartridges offer discounts on trade-ins. (See References 5)

Yard Waste

Older children can learn to set up and maintain composting bins. Recycling such waste as grass clippings, leaves, vegetable trimmings and eggshells can create rich compost for use in the garden. (See References 6)

Water

Children can save gray water from washing or from art projects and reuse it for watering indoor plants or outdoor gardens. For best results, the gray water should not contain grease or food particles, and any soap content should contain a minimum of sodium to prevent plant damage (see References 2).

Books

Students who learn to take good care of books are actively recycling them, both at home and at school. Donating books that you've outgrown to charity or planning a school used-book sale keeps the tomes in the recycling loop, as does forming a book exchange group.

Tires

Old tires are useful both at home and school. A tire swing, a flowerbed built inside a tire or a playground with a shredded tire surface are all options for recycling (see References 3). Additionally, parents, teachers and children can take collected tires to a tire recycling facility; your community's solid waste department should be able to provide a list of appropriate facilities (see References 4).

HOW A PLASTIC BAG GET RECYCLED? LETS SEE!



 

UNIT 5: LESSON 8: REUSE, REDUCE AND RECYCLE


REUSE, REDUCE AND RECYCLE

Recycling is processing used materials (waste) into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from landfilling) by reducing the need for "conventional" waste disposal, and lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to virgin production.[1][2] Recycling is a key component of modern waste reduction and is the third component of the "Reduce, Reuse, Recycle" waste hierarchy.
There are some ISO standards relating to recycling such as ISO 15270:2008 for plastics waste and ISO 14001:2004 for environmental management control of recycling practice.
Recyclable materials include many kinds of glass, paper, metal, plastic, textiles, and electronics. Although similar in effect, the composting or other reuse of biodegradable waste – such as food or garden waste – is not typically considered recycling.[2] Materials to be recycled are either brought to a collection center or picked up from the curbside, then sorted, cleaned, and reprocessed into new materials bound for manufacturing.
In the strictest sense, recycling of a material would produce a fresh supply of the same material—for example, used office paper would be converted into new office paper, or used foamed polystyrene into new polystyrene. However, this is often difficult or too expensive (compared with producing the same product from raw materials or other sources), so "recycling" of many products or materials involves their reuse in producing different materials (e.g., paperboard) instead. Another form of recycling is the salvage of certain materials from complex products, either due to their intrinsic value (e.g., lead from car batteries, or gold from computer components), or due to their hazardous nature (e.g., removal and reuse of mercury from various items). Critics dispute the net economic and environmental benefits of recycling over its costs, and suggest that proponents of recycling often make matters worse and suffer from confirmation bias. Specifically, critics argue that the costs and energy used in collection and transportation detract from (and outweigh) the costs and energy saved in the production process; also that the jobs produced by the recycling industry can be a poor trade for the jobs lost in logging, mining, and other industries associated with virgin production; and that materials such as paper pulp can only be recycled a few times before material degradation prevents further recycling. Proponents of recycling dispute each of these claims, and the validity of arguments from both sides has led to enduring controversy.